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Perio Glossary

  • Abutment - Tooth, root, or implant used to support and/or anchor a fixed or removable prosthesis.
  • Aperture - An opening or orifice
  • Autogenous - Self-produced; not derived from an external source.
  • Biopsy - The removal and examination, usually microscopic, of tissue for the purpose of establishing a histopathological diagnosis. May also refer to the tissue specimen obtained by this procedure.
  • Bone - The hard form of connective tissue that constitutes the majority of the skeleton of most vertebrates. It consists of an organic component and an inorganic, or mineral, component. The organic matrix contains a framework of collagenous fibers and is impregnated with the mineral component, chiefly calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite, that imparts rigidity to bone. The alveolar process supports to alveoli, and consists of cortical bone, cancellous trabeculae, and the alvolar bone proper.
  • Bone Augmentation – A surgical procedure aimed to increase the size of a bony site, before or together with implant placement.
  • Bone Fill- The clinical restoration of bone tissue in a treated periodontal defect. Does not address the presence or absence of histologic evidence of new connective tissue attachment or the formation of a new periodontal ligament.
  • Barrier Membrane – A separating structure or barrier that prevents enables the passage of nutrients while preventing unwanted tissues (usually soft tissue) from entering a space created for lost bone restoration.
  • Bone Augmentation– A surgical procedure aimed to increase the size of a bony site, before or together with implant placement
  • Bone Graft– A material that encourages bone growth by creating a framework, or by releasing biologic stimulators or triggers, which allow bone cell attachment, proliferation, migration and maturation to bone. Bone grafts may be from the same or another individual, synthetic or naturally occurring.
  • Collagen -  A genetically distinct family of structural macromolecules of the extracellular matrix that contains one or more domains assembled in a triple helix. These proteins form a wide variety of structures.
  • Collagenese: A neutral metalloproteinase that catalyzes the degradation of collagen.
  • Degradable Membrane / Resorbable Membrane – A membrane that is designed to serve as a barrier until no longer needed. The membrane is then either degraded by tissue enzymes, simply dissolves or integrates into the new bone.
  • Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) – A technique in which a membrane is placed over a bone defect site to encourage new bone growth and direct its formation while preventing other tissues from interfering with osteogenesis. 
  • Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) – treatment of wound tissue using microporous membranes as barriers, so that only specific, desired types of cells can enter the wound and regenerate. 
  • Non-degradable Membrane – A membrane that does not degrade so that when its barrier effect is no longer needed or effective, needs to be removed in a surgical procedure.
  • Maxillary Sinus Augmentation / Elevation – A procedure to increase the amount of bone in the cavity of the sinus (empty space) that is located in the posterior areas of the maxilla (the upper jaw). This is usually done before, or together with dental implant placement. Bone graft and barrier membranes are usually used for this purpose.
  • Ossification – The process of creating bone, that is of transforming cartilage or fibrous tissue into bone.
  • OSSIX® PLUS – A resorbable barrier membrane, made of pure collagen cross-linked by a natural sugar (ribose). OSSIX® PLUS is a barrier membrane, maintaining the barrier effect for 4-6 months. 
  • Periodontal Membrane – A thin sheet-like usually nonautologous (not from same body) material used in various periodontal regenerative procedures.
  • Periodontics- That specialty of dentistry which encompasses the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the supporting and surrounding tissues of the teeth or their substitutes; the maintenance of the health, function and esthetics of these structures and tissues; and the replacement of lost teeth and supporting structures by grafting or implantation of natural and synthetic devices and materials.
  • Periodontist - A dental practitioner who, by virtue of special knowledge and training in the field, is qualified to and limits his/her practice or activities to periodontics.
  • Periodontitis - Inflammation of the supporting tissues of the teeth. Usually a progressively destructive change leading to loss of bone and periodontal ligament. An extension of inl1dmmation from gingiva into the adjacent bone and ligament.
  • Regeneration
    Regrowth of lost or destroyed parts or organs 
    The process of repair, reproduction, or replacement of lost or injured cells, tissues, or organs. Also called neogenesis.
  • Regenerative procedure – Guided bone or tissue regenerative procedures that regenerate lost bone and tissue supporting your teeth can reverse some of the damage caused by periodontal disease.
    A periodontist may recommend a regenerative procedure when the bone supporting teeth has been destroyed due to periodontal disease. These procedures can reverse some of the damage by regenerating lost bone and tissue.
    During this procedure, the periodontist folds back the gum tissue and removes the disease-causing bacteria. Membranes (filters), bone grafts or tissue-stimulating proteins can be used to encourage your body's natural ability to regenerate bone and tissue.
    Eliminating existing bacteria and regenerating bone and tissue helps to reduce pocket depth and repair damage caused by the progression of periodontal disease. With a combination of daily oral hygiene and professional maintenance care, one can increase the chances of keeping natural teeth – and decrease the chances of other health problems associated with periodontal disease. (American Academy of Periodontology)
If you would like to learn more, the European Association for Osseointegration (EAO) provides answers to frequently asked Osseointegration questions.
Additional information can also be found on

American Academy of Periodontology
Dorland's Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers. © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.
Mosby's Dental Dictionary, 2nd edition. © 2008 Elsevier, Inc. 
Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. © 2009, Elsevier.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company.

For additional general information regarding dental implants please read our Dental Implant Page
Please consult a medical professional to discuss what is right for you.


Datum Dental Ltd is a subsidiary company of Datum Biotech. The Company was created in order to develop, manufacture and market a full line of dental biomaterials for tissue and bone regeneration.

Datum Biotech Ltd is an Israeli based Biomaterials company that specializes in developing, manufacturing and commercializing proprietary technologies, which are based on innovative and unique sugar cross-linked collagen products for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
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